Windows 10 Insiders in the fast ring have a chance to try Bash (beta) which is delivered with build 14316. Bash is familiar from Linux, "Bourne again shell". When typing in commands in Linux, bash is there. From now on Windows 10 also has if not all at least some of Linux commands to offer.
How to install Bash on Windows 10?
Keep in mind only Windows Insiders are accepted to try Bash at the moment. However, during summer 2016 a huge Windows 10 update called Anniversary will bring Bash to every Windows 10 user.
Troubleshooting: My 32-bit Windows 10 Insider Home didn't receive Bash but 64-bit Pro did. I will edit this paragraph as soon as there is more information available.
WARNING: YOU ARE INSTALLING THIS BETA SOFTWARE AT YOUR OWN RISK!
Off you go:
1) Choose Developer mode and reboot.
3) Find Windows Features and choose Subsystem for Linux (beta). Wait.
4) Open Windows Command Line tool and type in bash. Answer Y. Again, wait.
Ok, Bash installed, then what?
Open another Windows Command Line Tool window and type in bash. Next, try: lsb_release -a