First off I wrote a simple code and then clicked button called "Program" which compiled the code in a cloud service (God knows where!) and pushed it to my Arduino Uno. What's best there is even a Term-mode. I happen to own an SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor. I will be able to monitor my next test circuit via Term-window!
Windows and OS X might be the number one platforms for Arduino software. However it's not impossible to do the same tricks with Chromebook (at least to some point).
ChromeDuino on my Chromebook
See the above video which shows my Chromebook and Arduino Uno!